The law established that "No person shall hunt any game unless he holds the appropriate Game License" and that "No license shall be issued to a native without the consent of the Governor. The governor could make regulations "allowing and regulating the hunting of game for the purpose of food supply in times of famine or by natives who are habitually dependent for their subsistence on the flesh of wild animals" Section 3 [e].
In fact the policy of the government was such "that the native should be regarded as having a moral right to kill a piece of game for food. As an indication of the SPFE's influence, the Game Ordinance of , which replaced the ordinance, was authored "to give effect to the provisions of the International Convention signed in London on the eighth day of November, , in so far as those provisions relate to the preservation of fauna in its natural state.
The bill, however, did not significantly alter Tanganyika's game policy, with the exception that a new category of protected area, the national park, was created. Any "person whose place of birth or ordinary residence is within the reserve" or "who has any rights over immovable property within the reserve" could enter or reside within. Immovable property, it was ruled, included pasturage for livestock. The stage was thus set for a protracted battle between conservationists and human rights advocates over the configuration of wildlife and forest management in the colony. On one side, conservation advocates wanted the state to exercise its claim as the sole legal authority controlling natural resources to curtail any customary use by Africans.
On the other side were pro-African elements who argued that the League of Nations mandate obligated Britain to respect African rights to the greatest degree. The result was a policy of compromise: not a compromise between the state and the colonized African population, but between factions within European society, and one that was ultimately unworkable given the ideological chasm dividing the two sides.
Conservation versus Customary Rights The legal ambivalence of colonial policy and legislation allowed both African rights and conservation advocates alike to make convincing arguments about the validity or irrelevance of African customary claims to land and resources. Very early in the British occupation, Sir Donald Cameron, governor of Tanganyika from to , foresaw the opposition of pro-African officials to the game laws and suggested that "the interests of the people must be paramount and that the conventional attitude as regards game preservation requires revisions.
A resolution passed at a agricultural conference stated: "[I]n Tanganyika This resolution and similar criticisms of game and forest policies were hotly contested. The chief native commissioner responded that he knew of nowhere that game preservation had crowded Africans "in areas which are too small to carry them.
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The conservator of forests reasoned that since intertribal warfare kept territorial boundaries in flux, there was no basis to acknowledge that the African's "claim is more valid than that of the non-native. Troup, director of the Imperial Forestry Institute in The recommendations of the Troup Report guided forest policy in Tanganyika for nearly twenty years.
In his report, Troup presented a lengthy polemic on the evils of free issue. These figures were intended to show the potential surplus to the department if free issue were eliminated. For Troup, free issue was a hidden subsidy for Africans. He felt the policy of allowing Africans free use contradicted the Forest Ordinance, which implied that reserved forests are free of rights. He concluded, finally, that "the timber trade of the country is handicapped by free issue So long as natives are allowed free produce from forest reserves, the development [of a trade in small dimension timber] will be difficult.
Imposing Wilderness by Roderick P. Neumann - Paperback - University of California Press
An untenable situation existed in which African rights seemed to be simultaneously eliminated and protected. A district administrator, for instance, argued that the Game Ordinance opposed the Land Ordinance and Territorial Mandate because it "must necessarily interfere with the holding, use, occupation and enjoyment of lands by natives and must necessarily disregard the rights and interests of natives.
In asserting its political dominance, sweeping claims to the ownership of all land and resources would be made and then the "privilege" to continue some customary uses would be granted. The character of these privileges was shaped by the colonial political economy as well as European ideologies of nature, hunting, and scientific resource management. Both of these factors will be explored below. Kitching, seemed sincerely concerned with protecting customary rights against the onslaught of European conservation efforts.
He later relied on his friendship with Harriman to pressure Congress to pass conservation legislation. Muir joined Roosevelt in Oakland, California , for the train trip to Raymond. The presidential entourage then traveled by stagecoach into the park. While traveling to the park, Muir told the president about state mismanagement of the valley and rampant exploitation of the valley's resources.
Even before they entered the park, he was able to convince Roosevelt that the best way to protect the valley was through federal control and management. After entering the park and seeing the magnificent splendor of the valley, the president asked Muir to show him the real Yosemite. Muir and Roosevelt set off largely by themselves and camped in the back country. The duo talked late into the night, slept in the brisk open air of Glacier Point, and were dusted by a fresh snowfall in the morning.
It was a night Roosevelt never forgot. Muir then increased efforts by the Sierra Club to consolidate park management.
About the Book
Muir's attitude toward Native Americans evolved over his life. His earliest encounters, during his childhood in Wisconsin, were with Winnebago Indians , who begged for food and stole his favorite horse. In spite of that, he had a great deal of sympathy for their "being robbed of their lands and pushed ruthlessly back into narrower and narrower limits by alien races who were cutting off their means of livelihood. Muir was given the Stickeen Muir's spelling, coastal tribe name "Ancoutahan" meaning "adopted chief".
With population growth continuing in San Francisco, political pressure increased to dam the Tuolumne River for use as a water reservoir. Muir wrote to President Roosevelt pleading for him to scuttle the project.
After years of national debate, Taft's successor Woodrow Wilson signed the bill authorizing the dam into law on December 19, Muir felt a great loss from the destruction of the valley, his last major battle. The destruction of the charming groves and gardens, the finest in all California, goes to my heart. In his life, Muir published six volumes of writings, all describing explorations of natural settings. Four additional books were published posthumously. Several books were subsequently published that collected essays and articles from various sources. Miller writes that what was most important about his writings was not their quantity, but their "quality".
He notes that they have had a "lasting effect on American culture in helping to create the desire and will to protect and preserve wild and natural environments. His first appearance in print was by accident, writes Miller; a person he did not know submitted, without his permission or awareness, a personal letter to his friend Jeanne Carr, describing Calypso borealis , a rare flower he had encountered.
The piece was published anonymously, identified as having been written by an "inspired pilgrim". He often compiled and organized such earlier writings as collections of essays or included them as part of narrative books.
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Muir's friendship with Jeanne Carr had a lifelong influence on his career as a naturalist and writer. They first met in the fall of , when, at age 22, he entered a number of his homemade inventions in the Wisconsin State Agricultural Society Fair. Carr, a fair assistant, was asked by fair officials to review Muir's exhibits to see if they had merit.
She thought they did and "saw in his entries evidence of genius worthy of special recognition," notes Miller. According to Muir biographer Bonnie Johanna Gisel, the Carrs recognized his "pure mind, unsophisticated nature, inherent curiosity, scholarly acumen, and independent thought.
Muir was often invited to the Carrs' home; he shared Jeanne's love of plants. In , he left Wisconsin to begin exploring the Canadian wilderness and, while there, began corresponding with her about his activities.
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Carr wrote Muir in return and encouraged him in his explorations and writings, eventually having an important influence over his personal goals. At one point she asked Muir to read a book she felt would influence his thinking, Lamartine 's The Stonemason of Saint Point. It was the story of a man whose life she hoped would "metabolize in Muir," writes Gisel, and "was a projection of the life she envisioned for him. After Muir returned to the United States, he spent the next four years exploring Yosemite, while at the same time writing articles for publication.
During those years, Muir and Carr continued corresponding.
She sent many of her friends to Yosemite to meet Muir and "to hear him preach the gospel of the mountains," writes Gisel. The most notable was naturalist and author Ralph Waldo Emerson. The importance of Carr, who continually gave Muir reassurance and inspiration, "cannot be overestimated," adds Gisel. It was "through his letters to her that he developed a voice and purpose. Muir came to trust Carr as his "spiritual mother," and they remained friends for 30 years. The value of their friendship was first disclosed by a friend of Carr's, clergyman and writer G.
Wharton James. After obtaining copies of their private letters from Carr, and despite pleadings from Muir to return them, he instead published articles about their friendship, using those letters as a primary source.
About the Author
In one such article, his focus was Muir's debt to Carr, stating that she was his "guiding star" who "led him into the noble paths of life, and then kept him there. Muir's friend, zoologist Henry Fairfield Osborn , writes that Muir's style of writing did not come to him easily, but only with intense effort.
Each sentence, each phrase, each word, underwent his critical scrutiny, not once but twenty times before he was satisfied to let it stand. Miller speculates that Muir recycled his earlier writings partly due to his "dislike of the writing process. Muir wrote in , "No amount of word-making will ever make a single soul to 'know' these mountains.
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